When a person commits a crime, there are generally two elements that must be present for the individual to be held legally responsible for their actions. These two elements are actus reus and mens rea. In this article, we will explore the definitions of these two elements and understand their importance in criminal law.
Actus reus refers to the physical act of committing a crime. It can also refer to an omission to act when there is a legal duty to do so. In other words, actus reus is the external, observable action taken by the person that violates the law.
For example, if a person breaks into someone’s house and steals their property, the act of breaking and entering and taking the property would be considered the actus reus. Similarly, if a person fails to act when there is a legal obligation to do so, such as a parent not taking their child to a doctor despite knowing that they need medical care, that failure to act would also be considered actus reus.
Mens rea, on the other hand, refers to the mental state or intent of the person committing the crime. It is the guilty knowledge or intention that a crime is being committed. In legal terms, mens rea is the mental element of a crime.
For example, if a person aims to harm another person intentionally, that intention would be considered mens rea. Similarly, if a person drives under the influence of alcohol, fully aware of the potential risk, and causes an accident, their knowledge of the potential harm incurred serves as their mens rea.
Importance of Actus Reus and Mens Rea
Understanding the distinction between actus reus and mens rea is important in criminal law as it helps to determine whether a person is guilty or not guilty of a crime.
In most instances, both elements must be present for a person to be held legally responsible for their actions. This is because, without the actus reus or mens rea, the crime cannot be committed.
For example, if a person takes their neighbor’s car without permission but returns it before the owner realizes it is missing, that act would be considered an actus reus but there was no mens rea as the person did not intend to steal the vehicle. Hence, they cannot be charged with the crime of theft.
Actus reus and mens rea are two of the most critical elements in criminal law. Without the actus reus, there cannot be a physical or observable violation of the law, whereas without mens rea, there cannot be the intent to break the law. Therefore, both elements must be present when proving that an individual has committed a crime.